Republic of the Philippines
TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Industrial Education
Ayala Blvd. Ermita, Manila, Philippines
This thesis entitled “HOW TO TEACH STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES? STRATEGIES FOR REGULAR CLASSROOMS”, prepared and submitted by JOSEPH LANIOG SESE TRILLANES ZABLA in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION, is hereby accepted and approved.
DR. APOLLO PORTEZ
Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Computer Education in Technological University of The Philippines.
DR. ROMEO S. EBONITE
Dean of College of Industrial Education
I thank all who in one way or another contributed in the completion of this thesis. I give thanks to God for protection and ability to do work. I am so grateful to the College of Education in Technological University of the Philippines-Manila for making it possible for me to study here. I give deep thanks to the librarians, and other workers of the faculty.
First and foremost, I would like to thank my parents, colleagues, and friends to support weather financially and emotionally approach. I would like to thank Dr. Apollo Portez for the challenge that he given to us that thought us to be a good researcher and a future instructor. I am also deeply thankful to the informants. Their names cannot be disclosed, but we want to acknowledge and appreciate their help and transparency during my research. Their information has helped me complete this research. I am also thankful to our fellow students whose challenges and productive. I also thank random people who I really do not know me but continued support me virtually and prayed for me throughout the time of my classes and research.
May the Almighty God richly bless all of you.
This is heartily dedicated to those people who keep on believing and supported me to pursue my studies. To my colleague friends; Joan Rueda, Norven Valenzuela, Bernadeth Guial, Jonah Empay & Elaine Libradilla specially to my parents who guided me, to my siblings who support me emotionally to become a better person, to my blogger friends Jason de Guzman, Clarenze Nixon Abonita, Robert Nabata and among others. And also to my nieces and nephews; Abby, Jay-Jay, Alexis, Ronald Jr, Rolie, Jilian Marie, Shawn Daniel, Neighel and Nathalie who keep on understanding and cheering me in times that I don’t even understand myself.
To God be the Glory.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
When students with disabilities enter the mainstream classroom, it can be a challenge for teachers. Maybe it can be examined some issues – and offer solutions – to help make teaching these special classes less stressful.
One of the realities of teaching today is that most teachers work in classrooms with students identified with a wide variety of needs. Teachers often focus on how to best accommodate their students with learning support needs, but when they welcome a student with emotional support needs into the classroom, it can really turn everything upside down. Students with emotional support needs often do not “play by the same rules” as other students. They do not always follow the classroom procedures and they do not adjust their behavior when correcting them–gently or firmly. Some emotional support students are severely surrender and we find ourselves desperately trying to bring them out of their shells. Others are overly energetic or aggressive, leaving us scrambling to manage their behaviors so it does not disrupt the learning of their classmates. It can be exhausting. Without the proper support, it can also be intimidating.
Having spent time as both an Emotional Support teacher and a regular education teacher with identified students in the class.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
I personally experienced of having a disability in my thinking skills and handling emotional attacks after caring an epileptic seizure – an abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Which I suffered a lot for years.
A report from World Health Organization (WHO) reveals that in the world, one in every four individuals will suffer from mental health problems at some point in their lives and that 450 million people worldwide have a mental health problem (WHO, 2001). In 2015, the global prevalence of common mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety disorders are estimated at 5.5% and 3.6%, respectively; suicide accounts for 1.5% of global deaths in the same year (WHO, 2017). WHO (2004) suggests that this widespread occurrence of mental health problems are often untreated and can cause role performance impairment?
Mental health disorders produce a sizeable burden to its victims. Literature suggests that mental illness can cause days out of work, loss of productivity, financial drain from treatment costs, family and caregiver stress and loss of life (Bronsard et al., 2016; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011).
According to world mental health survey results, 50% of psychiatric disorders exists by age 14 (Sorel, 2010). Mental health problems, being developmental in nature and aetiology, are best addressed through prevention measures during early age. Educational institutions, being the students’ primary environment during their formal educational years, should establish systems, wherein actual and potential mental health problems among the youth can be addressed. The link between mental health of students, and academic engagement (Reis, Hoppe, & Schröder, 2015; Roth, 2013), and school environment (Chen, Romero, & Karver, 2016).
Student involvement and mental health
During their later adolescent years, college students spend most of their time in schools and frequently interact with peers, classmates and teachers. Their ability to socially integrate with the entities in the academe influences the state of their mental health. Pachucki, Ozer, Barrat, and Cattuto (2015) suggest that the structure interaction networks of adolescents influence the robustness of depressive symptoms. Moreover, students who have low perceived quality of support were more likely to experience mental health difficulties (Hefner & Eisenberg, 2009) The extent to which students are involved with both curricular and extra-curricular activities is also indicative of their psychological wellbeing and distress as seen in qualitative (Buckley & Lee, 2018) and quantitative studies (Billingsley & Hurd, 2019; Lushington et al., 2015). Various social, developmental and academic challenges offered by the school shape the minds of these late adolescents as they strive towards the attainment of their respective degrees and better life conditions during early adulthood.
Student involvement, mental health, and quality of life of students
There are a number of studies associating student involvement and achievement with mental health and vice versa and have documented the positive effects of social and emotional learning programming on students of diverse backgrounds. Improved social and emotional behaviors among students can have a strong impact on success in school and ultimately in life (Greenberg et al., 2003).
Through a longitudinal study, Fleming et al. (2005) provided strong empirical evidence that interventions that strengthen students’ social, emotional, and decision-making skills also positively impact their academic achievement. Students with frequent feelings of internalized distress such as sadness, anxiety, depression) show poor academic functioning and those with externalized distress such as anger, frustration, and fear exhibit school difficulties (Roeser, Eccles, & Strobel, 1998).
Life satisfaction was found to have a bidirectional relationship with student engagement in students (Lewis, Huebner, Malone, & Valois, 2011). Meade and Dowswell (2016) in through their longitudinal study suggested that health-related quality of life of adolescents’ changes over time and is influenced by peer relationships. Friendship quality and student engagement were found to be linked with student quality of life in a Malaysian cohort of students (Thien & Razak, 2013).
A cross-sectional survey done with secondary students revealed that psychological health and mental health needs were predictors to life impact (Lauder et al., 2010). Another study suggests that the severity of the mental illness symptoms was a predictor of health-related quality of life (Dey, Mohler-Kuo, & Landolt, 2012).
The state of mental health among college students in the Philippines
The social and mental health aspects of student welfare in tertiary level institutions have gained more attention from stakeholders of education in the Philippines, wherein college students are still considered in the adolescent youth bracket. News reports have revealed college students involved in violent acts, such as murder transpiring within (GMA News, 2012) and outside university premises (Baclay, 2010; Pedrosa, 2013). Also, there is an increase in incidence of suicide committed by college students through various forms such as jumping from a building (Manila Bulletin, 2013) and shooting self with a gun (PHnews, 2013). Experts have reported that there is one suicide referral made per day among the youth (Tomacruz, 2018). Commentaries from various journalistic publications in the Philippines argue that these destructive exhibitions of social and mental problems among the youth can be attributed to both social and academic factors, and that addressing these problems requires a holistic approach coming from various social institutions such as the family, the school and policy-making bodies (Cruz, 2013; Salaverria, 2013; Sauler, 2013; Tomacruz, 2018).
In the context of the recently enacted Mental Health Act in the Philippines (RA 11,036), and the dearth of literature situated in the Philippine context on the mental status among college students, the present research aims to examine the relationship among student involvement, mental health status and quality of life among college students in a selected university in the Philippines.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
One of the realities of teaching today is that most teachers work in classrooms with students identified with a wide variety of needs. We often focus on how to best accommodate our students with learning support needs, but when we welcome a student with emotional support needs into our classroom, it can really turn everything upside down. Students with emotional support needs often don’t “play by the same rules” as other students. They do not always follow our classroom procedures and they don’t adjust their behavior when we correct them–gently or firmly. Some emotional support students are severely withdrawn, and we find ourselves desperately trying to bring them out of their shells. Others are overly energetic or aggressive, leaving us scrambling to manage their behaviors so it does not disrupt the learning of their classmates. It can be exhausting. Without the proper support, it can also be intimidating.
Having spent time as both an Emotional Support teacher and a regular education teacher with identified students in my class, here is a list of dos and don’ts that have helped me to best accommodate these often-challenging students.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This part of the study will show the review of related literature and studies. The following subtopics of this research are the Teaching aspect, Learning aspect, Innovative aspect, materials and operational or action features.
If you are teaching a class with a student who has emotional support needs, read their paperwork–but also make sure to chat with the Special Education teacher who wrote the paperwork. Often, we can tell you more about the student and the best ways to accommodate him/her in your classroom. We might have helpful ideas that were not included in the paperwork or ideas that have helped students with similar needs. It is important to remember that the Special Education teacher might not be able to solve all of the challenges you may face–but it is equally important to continue to communicate with them about those challenges. The Special Education teacher can document that information and use it to adapt or change the student’s Individualized Educational Plan.
DON’T be afraid to ask for help.
This goes together with the first “DO.” Do not be shy about communicating what is working and what isn’t working in your classroom. If you have been given a behavior plan to follow and you have followed it for a few weeks and are not seeing any improvement–don’t hesitate to bring that up to the student’s IEP team. If you are concerned that the student is not improving, is overly distracting to other students or if you are concerned for the safety of the student, of other students, or of yourself–don’t feel like you have to deal with it on your own. Reach out to the IEP team and to your administration and communicate your concerns. You should not have to deal with these challenges on your own.
DO talk to the student.
If the student is older, it can be an exceptionally good idea to meet with them before or after class to go over the expectations and procedures of the class, as well as what their IEP states. It lets them know that you are aware of what they need to be successful in class as well as what you need from them to be a successful citizen in your classroom. If the student has a history of challenging behavior, it can also be helpful to let them know that you are aware of that past, but that you are a fair teacher who will always treat him/her just like you treat other students. Let them know that if they make mistakes you will not hold a grudge, but also let them know in a firm but friendly way that there are consequences in your classroom and that, just like everyone else, they will receive them if they do make mistakes. By sharing this information during a calm time you will avoid the student feeling like you are picking on them later on. Make sure you let them know that you are looking forward to them being in your room and that the two of you will work together to make it a great year.
DON’T take it personally.
Even if you have had a great start and things seem to be going well, one of the most challenging aspects of working with students with emotional needs is that you may never know exactly when or why they act out. Even more challenging is the fact that this acting out often comes in the form of defying or being disrespectful to the people who have been trying the hardest to help them. They may be attempting to gain attention, avoid an activity, test boundaries, or deflect attention away from something they are uncomfortable about. It can come out of nowhere… and sometimes students with emotional needs can be surprisingly personal in their attacks. It is very important to realize that when an Emotional Support student acts out it is not about you specifically. Take a breath, follow the behavior plan or your classroom procedures for dealing with behavior issues, and stay calm. Sometimes, all they want to do is see what it takes to get your riled up. Other times they do not believe adults who say they’ll be there for them or treat them fairly, so they test it by misbehaving. Staying calm demonstrates that you are an adult, a professional, and that you will always treat them fairly–even when they misbehave.
DO build rapport and trust on the good days.
Because we know the challenging days are inevitable, it is important to take advantage of the times when students with emotional support needs are working well and being positive. Enjoy getting to know the student while they are willing and, in the mood, to share. Find things that both of you enjoy and have in common and begin to build the rapport and trust that will make the challenging times easier to get through.
DON’T get backed into a corner.
Students with emotional support needs can sometimes be particularly good at manipulating situations. Teachers I spoke with about this article relayed stories of being fooled into letting students do far less work than they were capable of because they believed the student couldn’t do it, or getting so frustrated with a student’s behavior that they threatened a consequence they were unable to act on. It is imperative when working with students with emotional support needs that we remain consistent, firm, and fair. Ignoring behaviors we would not tolerate from our other students because they are being “reasonably good,” or issuing consequences (like loss of break time if their IEP specifically states they are to receive a certain amount of it each day) that we can’t carry out weakens our position as a trusted adult in their life.
DO have a plan for when things go badly.
It can be downright frightening when a student with emotional support needs has a true breakdown during class time. Although we’ve read the IEP, reviewed the behavior plan, and think we are prepared–the first time you see a student cursing, spitting, throwing, biting, hitting, or worse, it can put even the most experienced educator at a loss for what to do. That is why it’s good to have already considered what exactly you will do when a student exhibits dangerous or inappropriate behaviors. When reading the student’s IEP and/or behavior plan, think to yourself, how will I handle this when it happens? If you do not know what you should do, ask the IEP team for suggestions, but do not wait for it to happen before thinking through your plan of action. Will there be an aide in the room who can move other students to a safe location? Is the student to be restrained or allowed to move around? Is there another classroom you can send the student to if he/she needs to calm down before becoming too upset? Try to work through these types of questions during the calm times so you know what to do during the not-so-calm times.
DON’T panic if a behavior plan does not work right away.
Behavior plans are wonderful when they work, but they are never perfect solutions. Sometimes they work beautifully for a time and then seem to stop. Other times they are implemented and do not seem to change the behaviors they were put in place to deal with at all. It is important, however, to commit to an agreed upon behavior plan and to follow it completely for several weeks before deciding to modify it. There are several reasons for this. One, quite frankly, is that an approved behavior plan is part of a student’s Individualized Educational Plan and therefore, we are required by law to follow it. Failure to comply with behavior plans can lead to lawsuits for the school district. More relevant to our classrooms, however, is that if we want behaviors to change, we must consistently address the reasons for the behavior and provide a suitable alternative to deal with those causes. If a student is withdrawing and refusing to speak to avoid math, we need to find a way to make math less intimidating. A plan to do that may take a while to work and that requires us to be patient and consistent. If we have given a plan time to work and are not seeing improvement, it is important to communicate that information to the IEP team so that adjustments can be made as needed.
DON’T let them get away with misbehavior.
While there may be certain behaviors that you will be required to overlook because their IEP or behavior plan states that you must, there will be plenty of other aspects of your daily classroom management routine that a student with emotional support needs may test. Many teachers, myself included, have found themselves bending the rules for these students–ignoring behaviors that we would not ignore from others–in an attempt to gain the student’s trust or to get them to participate in class activities. While there may be times when this is necessary, it is also vital to hold these students accountable for their behavior. As members of your classroom they need to know that you have high expectations for them just like you have for all the students.
DO stay calm.
I know I went out of order here at the end, but I wanted my last point to be the “DO” I have found the most valuable when dealing with Emotional Support students. Students who are dealing with this type of disability require the guidance and support of steadfast, reliable adults. They need to know that we will encourage them when they are at their best and that we will be fair and safe when they are at their worst. They will test us frequently to see if we are honest in our claims. Some of their tests will hurt. One of the hardest aspects of working with these students is the “one step forward, three steps back” feelings that occur when you feel you’ve made progress with a student one day only to have them act out the next. It is vital at these times to remain calm, to remind ourselves that we are professionals helping a hurt child, and that we promised we would be here to support them.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
In recent time, we are now facing a problem because of the virus that spread all over the world. As a result, I choose my personal experience as a good example on how to handle and focus to the person who is in needs. limited resources of information are gathered for the proposal thesis being provided. Hence, as a future educator I still believe that, this proposal can help to those students or person with mental and emotional imbalance. This study can be used as a guide on how to handle a student with disability and depression.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
When it comes to learning disabilities all children or student needs love, encouragement, and support, and for student with learning disabilities, such positive reinforcement can help ensure that they emerge with a strong sense of self-worth, confidence, and the determination to keep going even when things are tough.
In searching for ways to help student with learning disabilities, remember that you are looking for ways to help them help themselves. Your job as a parent is not to “cure” the learning disability, but to give your child the social and emotional tools they need to work through challenges. In the long run, facing and overcoming a challenge such as a learning disability can help your child grow stronger and more resilient.
Always remember that the way you behave and respond to challenges has a big impact on your child. A good attitude will not solve the problems associated with a learning disability, but it can give your child hope and confidence that things can improve and that they will eventually succeed.
Tips for dealing with your students’ learning disability
Keep things in perspective. A learning disability is not insurmountable. Remind yourself that everyone faces obstacles. It is up to you as a parent to teach your child how to deal with those obstacles without becoming discouraged or overwhelmed. Do not let the tests, school bureaucracy, and endless paperwork distract you from what is really important giving your child plenty of emotional and moral support.
Become your own expert. Do your own research and keep abreast of new developments in learning disability programs, therapies, and educational techniques. You may be tempted to look to others—teachers, therapists, doctors—for solutions, especially at first. But you are the foremost expert on your child, so take charge when it comes to finding the tools, they need to learn.
Be an advocate for your child. You may have to speak up time and time again to get special help for your child. Embrace your role as a proactive parent and work on your communication skills. It may be frustrating at times, but by remaining calm and reasonable, yet firm, you can make a huge difference for your child.
Remember that your influence outweighs all others. Your child will follow your lead. If you approach learning challenges with optimism, hard work, and a sense of humor, your child is likely to embrace your perspective—or at least see the challenges as a speed bump, rather than a roadblock. Focus your energy on learning what works for your child and implementing it the best you can.
LEARNING DISABILITIES AND SUCCESS
Self-awareness and self-confidence
For student with learning disabilities, self-awareness (knowledge about strengths, weaknesses, and special talents) and self-confidence are especially important. Struggles in the classroom can cause children to doubt their abilities and question their strengths.
Ask your student to list their strengths and weaknesses and talk about your own strengths and weaknesses with your child.
Encourage your child to talk to adults with learning disabilities and to ask about their challenges, as well as their strengths.
Work with your child on activities that are within their capabilities. This will help build feelings of success and competency.
Help your child develop their strengths and passions. Feeling passionate and skilled in one area may inspire hard work in other areas too.
A proactive person can make decisions and take action to resolve problems or achieve goals. For people with learning disabilities, being proactive also involves self-advocacy (for example, asking for a seat at the front of the classroom) and the willingness to take responsibility for choices.
Talk with your learning-disabled child about problem solving and share how you approach problems in your life.
Ask your child how they approach problems. How do problems make them feel? How do they decide what action to take?
If your child is hesitant to make choices and act, try to provide some “safe” situations to test the water, like choosing what to make for dinner or thinking of a solution for a scheduling conflict.
Discuss different problems, possible decisions, and outcomes with your child. Have your child pretend to be part of the situation and make their own decisions.
Perseverance is the drive to keep going despite challenges and failures, and the flexibility to change plans if things are not working. Children (or adults) with learning disabilities may need to work harder and longer because of their disability.
Talk with your child about times when they persevered—why did they keep going? Share stories about when you have faced challenges and not given up.
Discuss what it means to keep going even when things are not easy. Talk about the rewards of hard work, as well as the opportunities missed by giving up.
When your child has worked hard, but failed to achieve their goal, discuss different possibilities for moving forward.
The ability to set goals
The ability to set realistic and attainable goals is a vital skill for life success. It also involves the flexibility to adapt and adjust goals according to changing circumstances, limitations, or challenges.
Help your child identify a few short- or long-term goals and write down steps and a timeline to achieve the goals. Check in periodically to talk about progress and adjust as needed.
Talk about your own short- and long-term goals with your child, as well as what you do when you encounter obstacles.
Celebrate with your child when they achieve a goal. If certain goals are proving too hard to achieve, talk about why and how plans or goals might be adjusted to make them possible.
Knowing how to ask for help
Strong support systems are key for people with learning disabilities. Successful people can ask for help when they need it and reach out to others for support.
Help your child nurture and develop good relationships. Model what it means to be a good friend and relative, so your child knows what it means to help and support others.
Demonstrate to your child how to ask for help in family situations.
Share examples of people needing help, how they got it, and why it was good to ask for help. Present your child with role-play scenarios that might require help.
The ability to handle stress
If children with learning disabilities learn how to regulate stress and calm themselves, they will be much better equipped to overcome challenges.
Use words to identify feelings and help your child learn to recognize specific feelings.
Ask your child the words they would use to describe stress. Does your child recognize when they are feeling stressed?
Encourage your child to identify and participate in activities that help reduce stress like sports, games, music, or writing in a journal.
Ask your child to describe activities and situations that make them feel stressed. Break down the scenarios and talk about how overwhelming feelings of stress and frustration might be avoided.
Picture the bell for first period ringing as your student’s saunter into class. Although most are cheerful when they see you, there is always that one student that seems down. Not only is he down, he is resistant to being in school in general. His attendance is terrible, and when he is there, all he seems to do is complain. Over time, this negative attitude towards school can wear you down.
Impact of Negative Attitudes on Teaching
Most teachers have experienced this scenario at some point in their career, even the most successful ones. Students with consistently negative attitudes can bring other students into their emotional funk, disrupt class, and put a serious drain on teacher’s emotional health and attention.
Today, we are going to learn some strategies to help these hard to reach students and hopefully turn their attitude about school around. But before we get into how to fix the problem, we need to understand the underlying cause of this behavior.
For students, all negative behaviors serve a purpose. It might be to avoid failure, get attention from adults or peers, or fulfill other unmet emotional needs. These negative attitudes should not be taken personally. This is easier said than done, though. Let us look at an example of one such situation.
Josephine has come in late every day since the beginning of school. Although sometimes she is willing to work, most days she is resistant, saying she does not understand the point of school and that she doesn’t want to be a scientist, so she doesn’t see the point of science class. When you press her about graduation, she says it does not matter. She does not want to graduate.
Students may opt out of classwork to avoid failure student head down.
As a caring teacher, you try to spend more time with her. But instead of getting into a power struggle over the completion of work, you get to know her as a person. Speaking with her other supports, you find that she is in foster care with her father is in jail and her mother has passed from a drug overdose last year. It turns out that Josephine is not trying to be difficult, she is just in a genuinely challenging situation that feels overwhelming.
Other students might have experienced failure in school so many times, they refuse to try. Trying means they might, and in their opinion probably will, fail again. To avoid failure and the negative feelings associated, they opt-out all together.
Strategies for Teachers
As a teacher, how are you to overcome these immense challenges? The best strategy is to build relationships with your students. Often, students that have a negative attitude towards school and learning have few, if any, positive relationships with adults. However, this will not happen overnight. Students with this type of problem will be resistant at first, and slow to trust you.
One strategy is called two-by-ten. In this strategy, you spend two minutes for ten days in a row talking to one at-risk student. The caveat is that it cannot be about schoolwork. Talk to them about their life, their interests, and really listen. You will see your relationship improve, and most likely, so will their attitude in your class.
This part of the research tends to show the theoretical operation of the proposed prototype. It was anchored to the proposal of (akira Sakamoto, 2016) where photodiodes and transistor was used as a switching sensor device.
In the semiconductor light-detecting element of the present invention the irregular asperity is formed in at least the region opposed to the pn junction in the principal surface of the silicon substrate. For this reason, light incident into the semiconductor light-detecting element is reflected, scattered, or diffused by the region to travel through a long distance in the silicon substrate. This causes the light incident into the semiconductor light-detecting element to be mostly absorbed in the silicon substrate, without passing through the semiconductor light-detecting element (silicon substrate). In the foregoing semiconductor light-detecting element, therefore, the travel distance of the light incident into the semiconductor light-detecting element becomes long and the distance of absorption of light also becomes long, so as to improve the spectral sensitivity characteristic in the near-infrared wavelength band.
Transistors are widely use in different electronic devices. In my proposal, transistor was used as a switch and amplification device for the prototype. The basic function of this proposed developmental thesis is to innovate the use of basic electronic component such as transistor that will play its vital role of becoming a sensor motion and fire alarm system. In these matters, I will innovate a device that can be used as a sensory motion and fire alarm system with the use of basic electronic components.
In this part of the research, a conceptual framework is being presented, in where the actual input through process and actual output which is the prototype. To be clearer and more accurate. Mapping from the first thing needed is being shown and on how that limited information will be use through its process and create an output.
Supporting the ‘whole’ student
The five dimensions of health and wellbeing represented below offer schools another, holistic way for schools to consider student engagement.
Engagement in learning – includes active participation and engagement in learning, having functional skills to participate meaningfully in all aspects of one’s life; being competent as a learner and problem-solver; and having a sense of meaning.
Social and emotional wellbeing – includes positive mental health / absence of mental health problems; self-awareness; emotional intelligence; self-regulation; resilience; interpreting the world positively; pro-social values and behaviors.
Supportive relationships – includes having positive family bonds and friendship, ability to rely on a trusted adult, experiencing a sense of belonging, and engagement / involvement in age appropriate learning and activity.
Physical health – includes physical health / absence of health problems; oral health; nutrition and weight; physical fitness; and self-management including sleeping.
Safety and material wellbeing – include sense of safety at home and school, being safe from injury and harm, having access to daily essentials and adequate and stable housing.
A research paradigm shows the flow of the operational features of the proposed thesis as an operating device.
Operational definition of terms
In this part of the study, will know the basic and advance operational terms being used for the proposed thesis.
TEACHING ASPECT: A term that a teacher could be able to transfer knowledge in different ways or aspects in teaching and learning process.
LEARNING ASPECT: A term that a student could be able to learn in different ways or aspects in teaching and learning process.
INNOVATIVE ASPECT: A term that describes the ability of an individual to create and innovate existing ideas into a new and most convenient form.
OPERATIONAL FEATURES: A term that describes the ability of a certain project as important role in lives of individual.